For Mathematics Combinations

[2020-21 Batch onwards]

I Year B.Sc.-Physics: II Semester Course-II: WAVE OPTICS

Work load:60 hrs per semester                                                                    4 hrs/week


Course outcomes:

 On successful completion of this course, the student will be able to:

  • Understand the phenomenon of interference of light and its formation in (i) Lloyd’s single mirror due to division of wave front and (ii) Thin films, Newton’s rings and Michelson interferometer due to division of amplitude.
  • Distinguish between Fresnel’s diffraction and Fraunhoffer diffraction and observe the diffraction patterns in the case of single slit and the diffraction
  • Describe the construction and working of zone plate and make the comparison of zone plate with convex
  • Explain the various methods of production of plane, circularly and polarized light and their detection and the concept of optical .
  • Comprehend the basic principle of laser, the working of He-Ne laser and Ruby lasers and their applications in different
  • Explain about the different aberrations in lenses and discuss the methods of minimizing
  • Understand the basic principles of fibre optic communication and explore the field of Holography and Nonlinear optics and their

UNIT-I Interference of light: (12hrs)

Introduction, Conditions for interference of light, Interference of light by division of wave front and amplitude, Phase change on reflection- Stokes’ treatment, Lloyd’s single mirror, Interference in thin films: Plane parallel and wedge- shaped films, colours in thin films, Newton’s rings in reflected light-Theory and experiment,

Determination of wavelength of monochromatic light, Michelson interferometer and determination of wavelength.

UNIT-II Diffraction of light:                                                 (12hrs)

Introduction, Types of diffraction: Fresnel and Fraunhoffer diffractions, Distinction between Fresnel and Fraunhoffer diffraction, Fraunhoffer diffraction at a single slit, Plane diffraction grating, Determination of wavelength of light using diffraction grating, Resolving power of grating, Fresnel’s half period zones, Explanation of rectilinear propagation of light, Zone plate, comparison of zone plate with convex lens.

UNIT-III Polarisation of light:                                              (12hrs)

Polarized light: Methods of production of plane polarized light, Double refraction, Brewster’s law, Malus law, Nicol prism, Nicol prism as polarizer and analyzer, Quarter wave plate, Half wave plate, Plane, Circularly and Elliptically polarized light-Production and detection, Optical activity, Laurent’s half shade polarimeter: determination of specific rotation, Basic principle of LCDs

UNIT-IV Aberrations and Fibre Optics:                (12hrs)

Monochromatic aberrations, Spherical aberration, Methods of minimizing spherical aberration, Coma, Astigmatism and Curvature of field, Distortion; Chromatic aberration-the achromatic doublet; Achromatism for two lenses (i) in contact and (ii) separated by a distance.

Fibre optics: Introduction to Fibers, different types of fibers, rays and modes in an optical fiber, Principles of fiber communication (qualitative treatment only), Advantages of fiber optic communication.

UNIT-V          Lasers and Holography: (12hrs)

Lasers: Introduction, Spontaneous emission, stimulated emission, Population Inversion, Laser principle, Einstein coefficients, Types of lasers-He-Ne laser, Ruby laser, Applications of lasers; Holography: Basic principle of holography.


  • BSc Physics, Vol.2, Telugu Akademy, Hyderabad
  • A Text Book of Optics-N Subramanyam, L Brijlal, S.Chand& Co.
  • Optics-Murugeshan, S.Chand&
  • Unified Physics Vol.IIOptics, Jai PrakashNath&Co.Ltd., Meerut
  • Optics,F.A. Jenkins and H.G.White, McGraw-Hill
  • Optics, AjoyGhatak,TataMcGraw-Hill.
  • Introduction of Lasers – Avadhanulu, S.Chand&
  • Principles of Optics- BK Mathur, Gopala Printing Press, 1995
Updated: October 13, 2021 — 12:10 pm

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