# B.Sc. PHYSICS SYLLABUS UNDER CBCS

For Mathematics Combinations

[2020-21 Batch onwards]

# II Year B.Sc.-Physics: III Semester Course-III: HEAT AND THERMODYNAMICS

Work load:60hrs per semester                                                                     4 hrs/week

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Course outcomes:

On successful completion of this course, the student will be able to:

• Understand the basic aspects of kinetic theory of gases, Maxwell-Boltzman distribution law, equipartition of energies, mean free path of molecular collisions and the transport phenomenon in ideal gases
• Gain knowledge on the basic concepts of thermodynamics, the first and the second law of thermodynamics, the basic principles of refrigeration, the concept of entropy, the thermodynamic potentials and their physical
• Understand the working of Carnot’s ideal heat engine, Carnot cycle and its efficiency
• Develop critical understanding   of   concept   of                 Thermodynamic                potentials, the formulation of Maxwell’s equations and its
• Differentiate between principles and methods to produce low temperature and liquefy air and also understand the practical applications of substances at low
• Examine the nature of black body radiations and the basic

# UNIT-I: Kinetic Theory of gases:             (12 hrs)

Kinetic Theory of gases-Introduction, Maxwell’s law of distribution of molecular velocities (qualitative treatment only) and its experimental verification, Mean free path, Degrees of freedom, Principle of equipartition of energy (Qualitative ideas only), Transport phenomenon in ideal gases: viscosity, Thermal conductivity and diffusion of gases.

# UNIT-II: Thermodynamics:                      (12hrs)

Introduction- Isothermal and Adiabatic processes, Reversible and irreversible processes, Carnot’s engine and its efficiency, Carnot’s theorem, Thermodynamic scale of temperature

and its identity with perfect gas scale, Second law of thermodynamics: Kelvin’s and Clausius statements, Principle of refrigeration, Entropy, Physical significance, Change in entropy in reversible and irreversible processes; Entropy and disorder-Entropy of Universe; Temperature-Entropy (T-S) diagram and its uses ; change of entropy when ice changes into steam.

UNIT-III: Thermodynamic Potentials and Maxwell’s equations:            (12hrs)

Thermodynamic potentials-Internal Energy, Enthalpy, Helmholtz Free Energy, Gibb’s Free Energy and their significance, Derivation of Maxwell’s thermodynamic relations from thermodynamic potentials, Applications to (i) Clausius- Clayperon’s equation (ii) Value of CP- CV (iii) Value of CP/CV (iv) Joule-Kelvin coefficient for ideal and Vander Waals’ gases

UNIT-IV: Low temperature Physics:                   (12hrs)

Methods for producing very low temperatures, Joule Kelvin effect, Porous plug experiment , Joule expansion, Distinction between adiabatic and Joule Thomson expansion, Expression for Joule Thomson cooling, Production of low temperatures by adiabatic demagnetization (qualitative), Practical applications of substances at low temperatures.

UNIT-V: Quantum theory of radiation:           (12hrs)

Blackbody and its spectral energy distribution of black body radiation, Kirchoff’s law, Wein’s displacement law, Stefan-Boltzmann’s law  and Rayleigh-Jean’s law (No derivations), Planck’s law of black body radiation-Derivation, Deduction of Wein’s law and Rayleigh- Jean’s law from Planck’s law, Solar constant and its determination using Angstrom pyrohelio meter, Estimation of surface temperature of Sun