B.Sc. PHYSICS SYLLABUS UNDER CBCS II YEAR B.Sc. -III SEMESTER
[2020-21 Batch onwards]
Course-III: HEAT AND THERMODYNAMICS
Work load: 60 hrs per semester 4 hrs/week
On successful completion of this course, the student will be able to:
- Develop an understanding on the concepts of Thermodynamics, Thermoelectricity, Low temperature Physics and Quantum theory of Radiation.
- Develop critical understanding of concept of Thermodynamic potentials and formulation of Maxwell’s
- Get familiarized with the principles of Seebeck effect, Thomson effect and Peltier effect.
- Understand the different methods of production of low temperatures and study the applications of substances at low
- Examine the nature of black body
UNIT-I: Kinetic theory of Gases: (12 Hrs)
Kinetic theory of gases- Assumptions-Pressure of an ideal gas; molecular interpretation of temperature- Maxwell’s law of distribution of molecular speeds (no derivation); experimental verification; Zeroth law of thermodynamics, Measurement of temperature.
UNIT-II: Thermodynamics : (12 Hrs)
First law of thermodynamics, work done in isothermal and adiabatic changes ,Reversible and irreversible process, Carnot’s cycle, Carnot’s theorem; Second law of thermodynamics, Kelvin’s and Clausius statements; Entropy, physical significance;.
UNIT-III: Low temperature Physics: (12 Hrs)
Methods for producing very low temperatures, Joule Kelvin effect, Porous plug experiment , Joule expansion-Distinction between adiabatic and Joule Thomson expansion- Production of low temperatures by adiabatic demagnetization (qualitative), Principle of refrigeration, Practical applications of substances at low temperatures.
UNIT-IV: Measurement, Laws and Theories of Radiation: (12 Hrs)
Black body, Ferry’s black body, Distribution of energy in the spectrum of Black body, Kirchoff’s law, Wein’s displacement law, Stefan-Boltzmann’s law and Rayleigh-Jean’s law (Statements only), Planck’s radiation formula (no derivations), Solar constant and its determination using Angstrom pyrohelio meter, Estimation of surface temperature of Sun.
UNIT-V: Thermoelectricity : (12 Hrs)
Seebeck effect, Variation of thermoemf with temperature; Thermo electric series; Measurement of thermoemf using potentiometer, Law of intermediate metals and intermediate temperatures – Peltier effect, Thomson effect; Thermoelectric diagrams and their uses, Thermoelectric power; Applications of thermoelectric effects.
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